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Draughts


Draughts games common characteristics and rules

Origin

Description

Objective

Start of the game and moves

Capturing

Final of the game

Specific rules for every Draughts game

Draughts games common characteristics and rules

Draughts game was modified in differents part of the world, causing nowadays the existence of numerous variants that, even if they keep the main concepts in common, may be very different between them.

Origin

Though it is not clear the origin of this ancient game, threre are some studies and publications about draughts strategy published in Spain dated from the 16th century. Nowadays there are many variants of the game.

Description

Checkered board is used; the size may be 8x8, 10x10 or 12x12 depending on the variant. Players have variable number of pieces (men), clear for one of them and dark for the other; only the squares in one of the colours are used (dark or clear squares, depending on the variant).

Objective

The aim is capturing or blocking all the opponent pieces (according to the later explained rules), so that the player who cannot move when turn arrives is the loser of the game.

The game becomes in a draw when the number of remaining pieces or their position on the board does not make possible the victory for any of both sides, or both players agree.

Start of the game and moves

There are two different kind of pieces: men and kings.

At the start of the game the men are placed alternatively in the firsts rows each side of the board.

In most of the variants (all except Turkish) moves are made always diagonally, and the men have to move only one square forward.

When one of the men reaches the first row of the opponent side is crowned and turns into a king; it will be recognized by placing another man of the same colour over the crowned one.

When one man reaches the last as a result of a capture move it becomes a king and may not continue the move, even if it could make inmediately any other capture as a king. This rule is not applied in Russian draughts.

Kings must be moved diagonally, like men, but they have always some additional possibilities dependig on the variant. Always may be moved forward and backward and, in most variants, with no limitations about the number of squares.

Capturing

The men capture also diagonally in most of the variants, by jumping on the opponent piece and reaching the next square behind the square occupied by the captured piece; the destination square must be empty, and only the square ocuppied by the captured piece must be between the starting and destinations squares. Some of the variants allow men capturing only forwards, and some other allow both forwards and backwards.

Kings capture also by jumping on opponent pieces but, same as normal moves, they have additional possibilities. In all the variants they may capture forwards and backwards and, in most variants, they may capture when there is one or more empty squares between the starting square and the captured piece or between the captured piece and the destination square. In any case, they can´t jump neither over own pieces nor over two opponent adjacent pieces.

Captures are always compulsory. Though the rules regarding the moves that may be made when there is more than one possible capturing move vary depending on the variants, in all the cases there is no option to make another kind of move whenever any capture is possible.

Both men and kings can make more than one jump in the same move, therefore capturing more than one piece. Whenever the capturing piece may jump again from the destination square it is compulsory to follow the capture move until it has no option to make any other jump.

When making multiple captures, in all variants except Turkish, the captured pieces are not removed from the board until the move is finished, and there is no option to jump twice over the same piece.

Final of the game

In order to avoid prolonging the game when it is obvious that it must be a draw because any of the players can´t win, all the variants provide some rules setting a maximum number of moves in certain circumstances. In such cases normally both players agree the draw before the limit is reached.

The game also ends in a draw whenever the same position of the pieces is repeated three times.

Specific rules for every Draughts game

Next the specific characteristics and rules about all the draughts games that may be played at Ludoteka.com are offered.

Game Board size Flying king Backwards capture Quantity rule Quality rule Peculiarities
Spanish draughts 8x8
12 men
X   X X The more practised draughts game in Latin countries and Maghreb
International Draughts 10x10
20 men
X X X   The more practised draughts game in the world
Brasilian Draughts 8x8
12 men
X X X   Same rules as Internacional Draughts
Canadian Draughts 12x12
30 men
X X X   Same rules as Internacional Draughts
Checkers 8x8
12 men
        The easiest rules
Italian Draughts 8x8
12 men
    X X Similar to checkers, but with complicated capture rules
Russian Draughts (Shashki) 8x8
12 men
X X     Pieces may continue jumping during the same move after becoming a king
Russian Draughts (Poddavki) 8x8
12 men
X X     This is the give away version of Shashki
Pool Checkers 8x8
12 men
X X     Rules are a mixture between International and Russian draughts
Frisian Draughts 10x10
20 men
X X X X Orthogonal captures are allowed
Thai Draughts 8x8
8 men
X       The variant with the lowest amount of pieces. The flying king has limits
Turkish Draughts 8x8
16 men
X   X   All the squares are used and moves are orthogonal

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